Thursday, January 28, 2010

Speaker Cone Materials Glossary and Introduction

Aluminum-coated polypropylene:
Polypropylene coated with a thin layer of aluminum. The combination creates a stiff, lightweight material used in woofer cones.

A synthetic fiber with excellent strength-to-weight properties. It can be woven into a fabric, or blended into polypropylene to produce lightweight, weather-resistant woofer cones that have the natural sound characteristics found in high-quality paper cones.

Butyl rubber:
A rubber/butylene compound with excellent flexibility and durability. Used for speaker surrounds.

Cast aluminum:
Cast metals have a greater resistance to resonance than stamped metals when used in speaker baskets. Cast aluminum combines light weight with rigidity and strength.

C.M.M.D. (Ceramic Metal Matrix Diaphragm):
First developed by Infinity for their home speakers, C.M.M.D. is a layered composite of thin ceramics and metal. This material is non-resonant, stiff and quite strong. It is notable for producing uncolored sound with excellent dispersion. C.M.M.D. is used for woofers, midranges and tweeters.

Ferro fluids:
Ferrofluids dissipate heat that builds up in speaker voice coils. Since ferrofluids are magnetic, they don't require physical containment — the speaker's magnetic field holds the fluid in place.

Foamed IMPP:
When polypropylene is injected as a foam into a speaker mold, the resulting material retains air bubbles that make it lighter without giving up strength.

A blend of glass fibers and plastics with excellent heat resistance. Used in constructing voice coil formers.

Graphite-injected polypropylene:
A composite material of polypropylene and graphite that is stiffer and stronger than regular polypropylene film.

HCL(Honey comb-Laminate):
HCL(Honey Comb-Laminate) is a laminate that combines layers of woven glass fiber with an inner core of Nomex honeycomb. The result is a very strong material, excellent for speakers that need to handle high power.

H.O.P.(Highly Oriented Polyolefin):
The molecules in Highly Oriented Polyolefine are arranged in linear strands, giving this material more inherent strength and rigidity than most other polymer films. H.O.P. is used by Sony for .

IMPP(injection-molded polypropylene):
IMPP consists of polypropylene that is injected into a mold when forming the speaker cone. The speaker cone retains more stiffness, and is less colored by resonation, than cast polypropylene cones.

IMPP composite:
To increase the strength and stiffness of IMPP, other materials are added to form IMPP composites. These materials are usually minerals like mica or carbon.

A polyethylene film that features excellent stiffness, shape retention, and durability. Tweeters made with this material produce natural, uncolored highs .

Kapton voice coil:
Kapton is a polymer that is often used in applications where high-temperature capabilities are important. It's well-suited for use in voice coil formers.

Laminated polyester:
This is a multi-layered material made of polyester fibers. This soft material has a natural, warm sound, much like silk.

Mylar, developed in the 1950s, is one of the granddaddies of polyester films. Mylar is usually used in small speakers such as tweeters or midranges. It's unaffected by humidity and is fairly inexpensive. Also known as PET.

A woven glass-fiber material. Neoglass is used in tweeters that need high power-handling capabilities.

PBO fiber:
PBO (polybenzoxozole) is a polymer that can be extruded into fibers and woven into a tough material. This fiber is used to build woofer cones.

Pearl mica:
Micas are a group of minerals composed of various amounts of aluminum, potassium, and other metals. Pearl mica has a distinct lustrous, pearl-like color. When injected into polypropylene, it yields a material that is dense yet sensitive — ideal for woofer cones.

See Polyetherimide.

A generic name for Mylar.

A polymer film material used in tweeters. Very similar in performance to Mylar.

A blend of polyester films and carbon resulting in a hard, non-resonant material used mainly in bright-sounding tweeters, and occasionally in constructing the speaker basket. Polycarbonates can be produced in a variety of colors, including transparent, for a distinctive look.

Polyester foam:
Foam material with polyester fibers blended for extra strength and durability. Polyester foam is used for speaker surrounds.

Polyetherimide, also known as PEI, Polyethermide, or Polyimide, is a very common polymer used for a variety of products. Its lightweight, shape-retaining properties, and high-temperature handling make it a good, reasonably-priced option for tweeter material.

A polymer film, such as polypropylene, made stronger by the addition of the mineral mica.

Polypropylene (PP):
A very popular material for car speakers, polypropylene is fairly rigid, with good internal damping, and complete weather-resistance.

A polymer film that is chemically the same as "Aramid," but produced as a film, rather than as a fiber. It has the same excellent strength-to-weight characteristics as Aramid, and is usually used in tweeters and midranges.

A Pioneer brand name for a filler material that is added to IMPP for increased rigidity.

They don't say "smooth as silk" for nothing. Silk is a highly-regarded material for tweeters because of the smooth, open, and airy sound it produces. For best performance, it must be properly treated and coated. High-quality silk can be somewhat expensive.

Silk/polymer composite:
Silk is blended with polymer materials to create a strong, rugged composite used in tweeters.

Silver film:
Used as a thin coating over polymer materials like PET, silver film provides a brighter sound than the polymer alone. This material is used in tweeters.

Titanium is quite strong, heat-resistant, and light. Usually used in tweeters, although sometimes layered into polypropylene for woofers. Characteristically "bright-sounding" in tweeters.

Titanium-coated polypropylene:
Coating polypropylene with titanium provides extra strength and stiffness to woofer cones.

Another name for a variety of cloth fabrics used for speaker construction. The intent is to replicate the smooth, open sound of silk tweeters.

A polypropylene base with nickel bonded to the top layer. This results in a light but strong cone material for woofer construction.

UFLC is the abbreviation for "polyUrethane Film Laminated Cloth." This material is used in soft dome tweeters because of its light weight, ability to keep its shape, and smooth, natural sound characteristics.

Urethane is a plastic compound that's more flexible and weather-resistant than natural rubber. This compound is used for making speaker surrounds.

Woven polypropylene:
A woven fabric made from strands of polypropylene. This woven material creates cones that are stiffer than typical polypropylene film cones.

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a light, strong para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.